FACE RECOGNITION HOMEPAGE



INTERESTING PAPERS

 

General Papers|Standards|Cog.Vision/Psy./Neuro.

Highly Cited Papers|Published Items vs. Citations

 

 

 

General Papers

Here are some excellent papers that every researcher in this area should read. They present a logical introductory material into the field and describe latest achievements as well as currently unsolved issues of face recognition.

W. Zhao, R. Chellappa, A. Rosenfeld, P.J. Phillips, Face Recognition: A Literature Survey, ACM Computing Surveys, 2003, pp. 399-458
download here, 3.88 MB

R. Brunelli, T. Poggio, Face Recognition: Features versus Templates, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 15, No. 10, October 1993, pp. 1042-1052
link

M. Kirby, L. Sirovich, Application of the Karhunen-Loeve Procedure for the Characterization of Human Faces, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 12, No. 1, January 1990, pp. 103-108
link

L. Sirovich, M. Kirby, Low-dimensional Procedure for the Characterization of Human Faces, Journal of the Optical Society of America A - Optics, Image Science and Vision, Vol. 4, No. 3, March 1987, pp. 519-524
download here, 4.58 MB

L. Sirovich, M. Meytlis, Symmetry, Probability, and Recognition in Face Space, PNAS - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 106, No. 17, 28 April 2009, pp. 6895-6899
download here, 741 kB

P. Sinha, B. Balas, Y. Ostrovsky, R. Russell, Face Recognition by Humans: 19 Results All Computer Vision Researchers Should Know About, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 94, No. 11, November 2006, pp. 1948-1962
link

R. Gross, S. Baker, I. Matthews, T. Kanade, Face Recognition Across Pose and Illumination, Handbook of Face Recognition, Stan Z. Li and Anil K. Jain, ed., Springer-Verlag, June, 2004, 27 pages
link

G. Shakhnarovich, B. Moghaddam, Face Recognition in Subspaces, Handbook of Face Recognition, Eds. Stan Z. Li and Anil K. Jain, Springer-Verlag, December 2004, 35 pages
download here, 475 kB

T. De Bie, N. Cristianini, R. Rosipal, Eigenproblems in Pattern Recognition, Handbook of Computational Geometry for Pattern Recognition, Computer Vision, Neurocomputing and Robotics, E. Bayro-Corrochano (editor), Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, April 2004
download here, 305 kB

R. Gross, J. Shi, J. Cohn, Quo vadis Face Recognition? - The current state of the art in Face Recognition, Technical Report, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 25 pages
download here, 2.58 MB

L. Torres, Is there any hope for face recognition?, Proc. of the 5th International Workshop on Image Analysis for Multimedia Interactive Services, WIAMIS 2004, 21-23 April 2004, Lisboa, Portugal
download here, 304 kB

L.-F. Chen, H.-Y.M. Liao, J.-C. Lin, C.-C. Han, Why Recognition in a Statistics-based Face Recognition System Should be based on the Pure Face Portion: a Probabilistic Decision-based Proof, Pattern Recognition, Vol.34, No.5, 2001, pp. 1393-1403
download here, 568 kB

X. Lu, Image Analysis for Face Recognition, personal notes, May 2003, 36 pages
download here, 1.24 MB

B. Moghaddam, Principal Manifolds and Probabilistic Subspaces for Visual Recognition, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 24, Issue 6, June 2002, pp. 780-788
link

B. Moghaddam, A. Pentland, Probabilistic Visual Learning for Object Representation, IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 19, No. 7, July 1997, pp. 696-710
link

M. Turk, A Random Walk through Eigenspace, IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, Vol. E84-D, No. 12, December 2001, pp. 1586-1595
download here, 2.32 MB

W.Y. Zhao, R. Chellappa, Image-based Face Recognition: Issues and Methods, Image Recognition and Classification , Ed. B. Javidi, M. Dekker, 2002, pp. 375-402
download here, 386 kB

W.S. Yambor, Analysis of PCA-based and Fisher Discriminant-Based Image Recognition Algorithms, M.S. Thesis, Technical Report CS-00-103, Computer Science Department, Colorado State University, July 2000
download here, 924 kB

M. Nixon, Eye Spacing Measurement for Facial Recognition, Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrument Engineers, SPIE, Vol. 575, No. 37, August 1985, pp. 279-285
download here, 1.55 MB

J. Ruiz-del-Solar, P. Navarrete, Eigenspace-based face recognition: a comparative study of different approaches, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part C, Vol. 35, Issue 3, August 2005, pp. 315-325
link

B. Moghaddam, Principal Manifolds and Probabilistic Subspaces for Visual Recognition, IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 24, No. 6, June 2002, pp. 780-788
link

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Standards

Face Recognition Format for Data Interchange

This standard specifies definitions of photographic (environment, subject pose, focus, etc.) properties, digital image attributes and a face interchange format for relevant applications, including human examination and computer automated face recognition.

Biometric data interchange formats - Part 5: Face image data

ISO/IEC 19794-5:2005 specifies scene, photographic, digitization and format requirements for images of faces to be used in the context of both human verification and computer automated recognition. The approach to specifying scene and photographic requirements in this format is to carefully describe constraints on how a photograph should appear rather than to dictate how the photograph should be taken. The format is designed to allow for the specification of visible information discernable by an observer pertaining to the face, such as gender, pose and eye colour. The digital image format can be either ISO standard JPEG or JPEG2000. Finally, the 'best practice' appendices provide guidance on photo capture for travel documents and face recognition performance versus digital compression.

Oriana Yuridia Gonzalez Castillo, Report: Survey About Facial Image Quality, Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Research, Darmstadt, Germany, December 2006
download here, 1.89 MB

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Cognitive Vision / Psychology / Neuroscience

It is the general opinion that advances in computer vision research will provide useful insights to neuroscientists and psychologists into how human brain works, and vice versa. Psychology and neuroscience issues potentially interesting to face recognition system designers (according to Zhao et al. Survey, 2003) are:
- is face recognition a dedicated process?
- is face perception the result of holistic or feature analysis?
- ranking of significance of facial features;
- caricatures;
- distinctiveness;
- the role of spatial frequency analysis;
- view-point invariant recognition?
- effect of lighting change;
- movement and face recognition;
- facial expression.
We would like to encourage this kind of interdisciplinary approach. Here are some recent papers linking two areas and some psychology- and neuroscience-based face recognition papers.

A.J. O'Toole, P.J. Phillips, F. Jiang, J. Ayyad, N. Penard, H. Abdi, Face Recognition Algorithms Surpass Humans Matching Faces over Changes in Illumination, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 29, No. 9, September 2007, pp. 1642-1646
link

A.M. Burton, V. Bruce, P.J.B. Hancock, From Pixels to People: A Model of Familiar Face Recognition, Cognitive Science, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1999, pp. 1-31
download here, 1.85 MB

A.M. Burton, S. Wilson, M. Cowan, V. Bruce, Face recognition in poor-quality video: Evidence From Security Surveillance, Psychological Science, Vol. 10, No. 3, May 1999, pp. 243-248
download here, 237 kB

H. Abdi, D. Valentin, B. Edelman, Eigenfeatures as intermediate level representations: the case for PCA models, Brain and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 21, 1998, pp. 17-18
download here, 165 kB

D. Valentin, H. Abdi, B. Edelman, What represents a face: A computational approach for the integration of physiological and psychological data. Perception, Vol. 26, 1997, pp. 1271-1288
download here, 325 kB

D. Valentin, H. Abdi, B. Edelman, A.J. O'Toole, Principal Component and Neural Network Analyses of Face Images: What Can Be Generalized in Gender Classification? Journal of Mathematical Psychology, Vol. 41, 1997, pp. 398-412
download here, 413 kB

G.W. Cottrell, What can computational models tell us about face processing?, Lecture, "Introduction to Cognitive Science" course, Cognitive Science Department, UC San Diego, USA
download here, 4.01 MB

G. Lovell, Face Recognition, Tutorial Handouts, "Cognitiove Psychology" Course, University of Stirling, UK
download here, 260 kB

G. Schwarzer, D.W. Massaro, Modeling Face Identification Processing in Children and Adults, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Vol. 79, 2001, pp. 139-161
download here, 213 kB

A. Schwaninger, C.-C. Carbon, H. Leder, Expert Face Processing: Specialization and Constraints, In G. Schwarzer & H. Leder, Development of face processing, Goettingen: Hogrefe, pp. 81-97
download here, 355 kB

A. Schwaninger, S. Ryf, F. Hofer, Configural information is processed differently in perception and recognition of faces, Vision Research, Vol. 43, 2003, pp. 1501-1505
download here, 127 kB

Y. Yacoob, L. Davis, Smiling Faces are Better for Face Recognition, Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 20-21 May 2002, Washington D.C., USA, pp. 59-64
link

J. Schmidhuber, Facial Beauty and Fractal Geometry, Technical Report IDSIA-28-98, Machine Learning Institute, IDSIA, 1998, 7 pages
download here, 198 kB

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Highly Cited Papers

Here you can find papers on face recognition that have more than 500 citations based on the SCOPUS or WoS databases. The below documents are sorted based on the number of citations according to SCOPUS database. Number of citations according to Google Scholar database are presented for completeness only. More information about the search conditions that were used to generate the results are presented below.

Disclaimer: The choice of the data sources reflects personal opinion of the Face Recognition Homepage administrators. Ranking used here should be treated as a guide-to-the-eye only. No comparison of the scientific merit of the included papers was intended.

HIGHLY CITED PAPERS
Cited By (SCOPUS)
Times Cited (WoS)
Cited By (Google Scholar)
M. Turk, A. Pentland, Eigenfaces for Recognition, Journal of Cognitive Neurosicence, Vol. 3, No. 1, Win. 1991, pp. 71-86
2977
2411
5332
P.N. Belhumeur, J.P. Hespanha, D.J. Kriegman, Eigenfaces vs. Fisherfaces: Recognition Using Class Specific Linear Projection, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 19, No. 7, July 1997, pp. 711-720
2031
1794
3181
A.K. Jain, R.P.W. Duin, J. Mao, Statistical Pattern Recognition: A Review, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 22, No. 1, January 2000, pp. 4-37
1169
968
1849
M.-H. Yang, D.J. Kriegman, N. Ahuja, Detecting Faces in Images: A Survey, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 24, No. 1, January 2002, pp. 34-58
906
745
1474
R. Chellappa, C.L. Wilson, S. Sirohey, Human and Machine Recognition of Faces: A Survey, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 83, Issue 5, May 1995, pp. 705-740
891
704
1653
P.J. Phillips, H. Moon, S.A. Rizvi, P.J. Rauss, The FERET Evaluation Methodology for Face-Recognition Algorithms, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 22, No. 10, October 2000, pp. 1090-1104
852
753
1373
W. Zhao, R. Chellappa, P.J. Phillips, A. Rosenfeld, Face Recognition: A Literature Survey, ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2003, pp. 399-458
793
626
1548
L. Wiskott, J.-M., Fellous, N. Kruger, C.D. Von Malsburg, Face Recognition by Elastic Bunch Graph Matching, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 19, No. 7, July 1997, pp. 775-779
761
701
1410
V. Bruce, A. Young, Understanding Face Recognition, The British Journal of Psychology, Vol. 77, No. 3, August 1986, pp. 305-327
755
---
1178
P. Viola, M.J. Jones, Robust Real-Time Face Detection, International Journal of Computer Vision, Vol. 57, No. 2, 2004, pp. 137-154
664
528
921
R. Brunelli, T. Poggio, Face Recognition: Features versus Templates, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 15, No. 10, October 1993, pp. 1042-1052
640
684
1459
M. Kirby, L. Sirovich, Application of the Karhunen-Loeve Procedure for the Characterization of Human Faces, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1990, pp. 103-108
602
626
1193
J. Sergent, S. Ohta, B. MacDonald, Functional Neuroanatomy of Face and Object Processing, A Positron Emission Tomography Study, Brain, Vol. 115, No. 1, February 1992, pp. 15-36
594
682
689
S. Bentin, T. Allison, A. Puce, E. Perez, G. McCarthy, Electrophysiological Studies of Face Perception in Humans, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 8, No. 6, 1996, pp. 551-565
566
559
635
B. Moghaddam, A. Pentland, Probabilistic Visual Learning for Object Representation, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 19, No. 7, July 1997, pp. 696-710
582
595
986
R. Diamond, S. Carey, Why Faces Are and Are Not Special. An Effect of Expertise, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Vol. 115, No. 2, 1986, pp. 107-117
516
---
674
J.W. Tanaka, M.J. Farah, Parts and Wholes in Face Recognition, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A: Human Experimental Psychology, Vol. 46, No. 2, 1993, pp. 225-245
512
---
604
D.L. Swets, J.J. Weng, Using Discriminant Eigenfeatures for Image Retrieval, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 18, No. 8, 1996, pp. 831-836
509
460
806

SEARCH CONDITIONS:

SCOPUS (http://www.scopus.com/), © Elsevier B.V.
Search for: ("face recognition" OR "facial recognition") in (Article Title, Abstract, Keywords)
Date Range: Published (All years) to (Present)
Document Type: (All)
Subject Areas: (Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Health Sciences, Social Sciences)
Sort: Cited By
Status: 29 April 2009

WoS - Web of Science (http://isiknowledge.com/) © The Thomson Corporation
Current Limits - Citation Databases: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED)
Timespan: All years (updated 2009-04-28)
Topic: "face recognition" OR "facial recognition"
Sort by: Times Cited
Status: 29 April 2009

Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.com/) © Google
Search Query: "Paper Title" author:Surname
Status: 29 April 2009

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Published Items vs. Citations

Left graph shows how many items on face recognition were published between 1991 and 2006, and right graph shows the number of citations to source items indexed within WoS - Web of Science. © The Thomson Corporation

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Last update: 29 April 2009